- There is a great deal of this kind of nonsense in the medical journals which, when taken up by broadcasters and the lay press, generates both health scares and short-lived dietary enthusiasms.
- Nowadays anyone applying for a research post has to have published twice the number of papers that would have been required for the same post 10 years ago.
- Attempts have been made to curb this tendency, for example, by trying to incorporate some measure of quality as well as quantity into the assessment of an applicant’s papers.
- This would be reasonable if it were not for the fact that scientists can easily arrange to cite themselves in their future publications, or get associates to do so for them in return for similiar favours.
- If we are serious about ensuring that our science is both meaningful and reproducible, we must ensure that our institutions encourage that kind of science.
- By the date of his birth Europe was witnessing the passing of the religious drama, and the creation of new forms under the incentive of classical tragedy and comedy.
翻译: 在莎士比亚出生的时代，欧洲正见证着宗教戏剧的消逝，以及在 古典 悲剧和喜剧的启发之下新型戏剧形式的诞生。
- No body who went to a grammar school could be ignorant that the drama was a form of literature which gave glory to Greece and Rome and might yet bring honor to England.
- But the professional companies prospered in their permanent theaters, and university men with litery ambitions were quick to turn to these theaters as offering a means of livelihood.
翻译: 但是 专业剧团 在其 固定的 剧场里蓬勃发展，为了谋生，大学里有文学抱负的人便迅速转向这些剧场。
- A native literary drama had been created, its alliance with the public playhouse established, and at least some of its great traditions had been begun.
- To realize how great was the dramatic activity, we must remember further that hosts of plays have been lost, and that probably there is no author of note whose entire work has survived.
翻译: 要明白当时的戏剧活动是何等 繁荣，我们必须记住，大量的剧作已经失传，也许没有哪位知名作家的全部作品幸存至今。
- This movement, driven by powerful and diverse motivations, built a nation out of a wilderness and, by its nature, shaped the character and destiny of an uncharted continent.
- The United States is the product of two principal forces —— the immigration of European peoples with varied ideas, customs, and national characteristics and the impact of a new country which modified these traits.
- But the force of geographic conditions peculiar to America, the interplay of the varied national groups upon one another, and the sheer difficulty of maintain old-world ways in a raw, new continent caused significant changes.
- The first shiploads of immigrants bound for the territory which is now the United States crossed the Atlantic more than a hundred years after the 15th-and-16th-century explorations of North America.
- The virgin forest with its richness and variety of trees was a real treasure-house which extended from Maine all the way down to Georgai.
- In physics, one approach takes this impulse for unfication to its extreme, and seeks a theory of everything —— a single generative equation for all we see.
翻译: 在物理学中，有一种方式将追求统一的冲动发挥到了极致，试图探求万物之理 —— 一个可以表达我们所见的一切的生成性方程。
- Here, Darwinism seems to offer justification, for if all humans share common origins, it seems reasonable to suppose that cultural diversity could also be traced to more constrained beginnings.
翻译: 这里，达尔文主义似乎做出了 证明，因为如果人类有着共同的起源，那么似乎就有理由认为文化的多样性也可以追溯到更有限的开端。
- To filter out what is unique from what is shared might enable us to understand how complex cultural behaviors arose and what guides it in revolutionary or cognitive terms.
翻译: 从共有事物中滤出特殊事物，也许使得我们能够理解复杂的文化行为是如何兴起的，并 从进化和认知角度 理解是什么引导了它的走向。
- The second, By Joshua Greenberg, takes a more empirical approach to universality, identifying traits(particulary in word order)shared by many languages. which are considered to represent biases that result from cognitive constrains.
翻译: 其次是约瑟·格林伯格，他用一种更为经验主义的方法研究语言的普遍性，确定了多种语言(尤其在词序方面)的共同特征，这些特征被视为由认知范畴产生的 倾向。
- Chomsky’s grammar should patterns of language change that are independent of the family tree or the pathway tracked through it, which Greenbergain universality predicts strong co-dependencies between particular types of word-order relations.
- Scients jumped to the rescue with some distinctly shaky evidence to the effect that insects would eats us up if birds failed to control them.
- But we have at least drawn nearer the point of admitting that birds should continue as a matter of intrinsic right, regardless of presence or absence of economic advantages to us.
- Time was when biologists somewhat overlooked the evidence that these creatures preserve the health of game by killing the physically weak, or that they prey only on “worthless” species.
- I shall define him as an individual who has elected as his primary duty and pleasure in life the activity of thinking in a Socartic way about moral problems.
- His function is analogous to that of a judge, who must accept the obligation of revealing in as obvius a manner as possible the course of reasonging which led him to his decision.
翻译: 知识分子的作用与法官的作用类似，后者 必须承担这样一种义务：以一种尽可能明了的方式将他做出决定的推理过程展现出来。
- I have excluded him because, while his accomplishments may contribute to the solution of moral problems, he has not been charged with the task of approaching any but factual aspects of those problems.
- But his primary task is not to think about the moral code which governs his activity, any more than a businessman is expected to dedicate his energies to an exploration of rules of conduct in business.
- They may teach very well, and more than earn their salaries, but most of them make little or no independent reflections on human problems which involve moral judgement.
- Traditionally, legal learning has been viewed in such institions as the special preserve of lawyers, rather than a necessary part of the intellectual equipment of an educated person.
翻译: 长久以来，这些院校将 法律知识 视为是律师所专有的，而不是一个受教育者所必须具备的知识技能。
- On the other, it links these concepts to everyday realities in a manner which is parallel to the links journalists forge on a daily basis as they cover and comment on the news.
- But the idea that journalist must understand the law more profoundly than an ordinary citizen rests on an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the news media.
- In fact, it is difficult to see how journalists who do not have a clear grasp of the basic features of the Canadian Constitution can do a competent job on political stories.
翻译: 事实上，很难 想象 那些对加拿大宪法的基本特性都不清晰了解的新闻从业者何以胜任政治新闻的报道工作。
- While comment and reaction from lawyers may enhance stories, it is preferable for journalists to rely on their own notions of significance and make their own judgmetns.
I shall define him as an individual
I have excluded him because,